The dog in health and disease: Comprising the various modes of breaking and including the points or characterisatics of all dogs, which are entirely rewritten. By John Henry Walsh ("Stonehenge") 1887 Scotch Deerhound and Irish Wolfhound
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
Since the First Edition of The Dog was published in 1859, his varieties have been studied, and their points minutely described, by a great number of breeders to an extent which was never contemplated before that time. As a consequence, I have been enabled to define them most minutely in the present edition, and I think no sufficiently known breed, either British or foreign, is omitted from the list. In the Second Book little or no change has been attempted, for the simple reason that there is no occasion for it, since the various uses to which the Dog is put in this country by the sportsman and the dog-fancier have not been altered during the interval which has elapsed.
The Third Book treats of his diseases, in which no great improvement has been effected since the publication of the Second Edition, and it is therefore printed as it then stood.
It is with some considerable satisfaction that I now present to my readers my original work on The Dog brought down to the level of the present day. - "Stonehenge"
II—THE DEERHOUND AND ROUGH GREYHOUND.
The deerhound is a magnificent animal in size and symmetry of frame, the dog often standing 28 inches high at the shoulder; and though possessing almost as much lightness and elegance of proportion as its congener the smooth greyhound, yet often weighing from 80 to 90 lbs., whereas the latter seldom exceeds 65 lbs.
"Caukr," a Deerhound of the pure Glengarry breed, 28 inches high, 34 inches in girth, bred by W. Meredith, Esq., Torrish, Sutherland.
"Caukr," a Deerhound of the pure Glengarry breed
Until very recently the deerhound was invariably employed in aid of the deerstalker, but in modern days he is comparatively seldom so used, his place being taken by a collie or some nondescript, capable of being kept under such complete control as never to alarm the deer while being stalked. In most cases no dog whatever is taken out by the deerstalker, so that the deerhound has now become more ornamental than useful. But his masrnificent shape and symmetry entitle him to be ranked among the dogs most suited to be ehiens de luxe.
The deerhound follows the wounded deer, like all other dogs, by the eye in preference to the nose, but the moment he loses sight he drops his head and feels for the foot scent, which is generally aided by the blood which flows from the hit of the rifle-ball. Like the greyhound, he is silent in his pursuit, occasionally, like many of that variety, giving a low whimper, totally unlike the bell-like note of the true hound. When pure, he never attacks the head of his quarry, but lays hold of the hind-leg, or fastens on the flank, his instinct warning him that the horns of the deer are dangerous to him; but when crossed by the bull-dog, as was attempted by several breeders for the purpose of giving courage, the peculiar propensity of the latter "to go at the head" is displayed, and leads so frequently to the death of the dog that the cross has been abandoned. There is an unusual disparity in size between the sexes, amounting to nearly one-half in weight and to fully onequarter in height. In general shape the deerhound closely resembles the greyhound, but there are a few points of difference which I shall proceed to describe.
The value of his points is as follows:—
Table Of Points Of The Deerhound
The head is slightly larger in proportion than that of the smooth greyhound, with larger and coarser jaws, but this latter part is rendered more striking by the coarser hair which covers the nose. The eyebrows also rise less than in the greyhound, the skull and nose in their upper outlines being nearly, though not quite, one straight line. The jaws are long and tapering, but not " snipey," the teeth being properly level, or very nearly so. The nose should be black at its tip, with open nostrils, but not widely so. There should be no fulness of the jaws below the eyes, and the muscles of the jaws must be well developed.
The ears of the deerhound should be like those of the greyhound, but they are usually carried a little higher than by that dog. As in him, pricked ears are sometimes seen, but they are to be considered as a defect. They are coated with fine, short, soft hair, except at the edges, which are fringed with longer hair. The eyes are fuller than those of the smooth greyhound. In the best strains they are hazel or blue.
The neck must be long enough to allow of the nose being carried low when the dog is at a fast pace, but not so "drake-like" as in the greyhound. It should be fine and lean at the setting on of the head, but it soon widens to the depth of the shoulders.
The chest should be framed like that of the greyhound, the necessary capacity being obtained by depth rather than width. Still, as high speed is not so all-important, a little more width may be permitted. The girth is generally rather less in proportion to the height, a dog of 28 inches seldom girthing quite 32 inches, while a well-made greyhound of 26 inches will always measure 30 inches round the chest. The shoulders must be long, oblique, and muscular.
The loin is required to be of great strength, as the deerhound often has to hold a wounded stag by sheer force. Hence this is a most important point, and both width and depth should be regarded as all-important. Wide and somewhat ragged hips are necessitated for this development. The back ribs are seldom deep, and though, when present, they should be regarded with favour, their absence must not be penalised to the same extent as in those breeds where they may be expected as the rule rather than the exception. A straight back is often met with, but an arched loin is to be preferred.
The elbows should be set low down, so as to give a long true arm. They should neither be turned in nor out; but this extends to all breeds. The stifles should be set widely apart, and should be large both in width and depth. They should be set on high, so as to coincide with long upper thighs.
The quarters should be muscular, but not heavily so; in this part, however, the deerhound is seldom overdone. The lower thighs should be well clothed with muscle, exhibiting a large "calf." The legs, both before and behind, should be straight and bony, the pasterns being required to be large and strong.
The feet are generally rather long than cat-like, but the latter formation is generally desired by the deerstalker. My own opinion, as in the greyhound, is against the very round foot, with extremely arched toes. There should be plenty of hair on them, in any case.
The colours preferred by breeders are dark blue, fawn, grizzle, and brindled, especially the blue brindle in the order given above. There should be no white; but a small white star on the chest, or a white toe or two, should not be regarded as considerable defects. The fawn-coloured dog is preferred with dark brown tips to his ears, but many excellent strains are without this shade. The coat varies greatly in different strains, some having it as hard as in the wire-haired terrier, while in others it is intermediate between wool and silk, with a few hairs showing through. The body generally is clothed with this rough and almost shaggy coat, but there is no fringe on the legs and very little even on the tail. The jaws are furnished with a decided moustache, but the hair composing it should be so soft as to stand out in tufts, and not like a brush, as it is when the hair is hard, stiff, and wiry.
The tail should be long and tapering, slightly curved, but without any corkscrew twist.
III.—THE IRISH GREYHOUND OR WOLF-DOG.
This grand variety is now extinct, no one in the present day maintaining that he possesses a strain actually descended from the old stock. An attempt has, however, been made by several gentlemen to "resuscitate it," which appears to me a most absurd one; for whatever may be the result, the produce cannot be regarded as Irish deerhounds, but rather as a modern breed, to which any other name may be given except the one chosen for it. Of course the Scotch deerhound is taken as the stock on which to graft greater size and power, and most probably this has been done, partly by the selection of very large specimens, and partly by crossing with the mastiff, or recently with the Great Dane. The result is, no doubt, the attainment of a small number of very fine animals, but there is great difficulty in keeping up the breed, even for the short time during which it has existed, as is generally the case with manufactured strains. Some of my readers may, however, like to see what is to be said by the most ardent of the breeders of this new strain, and I therefore insert a description published by Captain Graham in "The Country" of February 24, 1876, in extenso, as follows:—
The Irish Wolfhound, By Capt. George A. Graham.
To do full justice to this subject is almost impossible, owing to the fact that there has been a generally received impression amongst modern writers that this noble breed of dog is entirely extinct. That the breed in its "original integrity" has apparently disappeared cannot be disputed, yet there can be equally little doubt that so much of the true breed is forthcoming, both in the race still known in Ireland as the "Irish wolfhound " (to be met with, however, in one or two places only) and in our modern deerhound, as to allow of the complete recovery of the breed in its pristine grandeur, with proper management, in judicious hands. It is a fact well known to all modern mastiff breeders who have thoroughly studied the history of their breed, that, until within the last thirty or forty years, mastitis, as a pure race, had almost become extinct. Active measures were taken by various spirited individuals, which resulted in the complete recovery of the breed, in a form at least equal, if not superior, to what it was of yore.
Why should not, then, such measures be taken to recover the more ancient, and certainly equally noble, race of Irish wolfhounds 1 It may be argued that, the services of such a dog no longer being required for sport, his existence is no longer to be desired ; but such an argument is not worthy of consideration for a moment, for how many thousands of dogs are bred for which no work is provided, nor is any expected of them, added to which, the breed would be admirably suited to the requirements of our colonies. One after another the various breeds of dogs which had of late years more or less degenerated, as, for instance, mastitis, fox-terriers, pugs, St. Bernards, collies, have become "the rage," and, in consequence, a vast improvement is observable in the numerous specimens shown from time to time. Let us, then, hope that steps may be taken to restore to us such a magnificent animal as the Irish wolfhound.
That we have in the deerhound the modern representative of the old Irish dog is patent; of less stature, less robust, and of slimmer form, the main characteristics of the original breed remain, and in very exceptional instances specimens "crop up" that throw back to and resemble in a marked manner the old stock from which they have sprung; for instance, the dog well known at all the leading shows (now for some years lost to sight) as champion Torrum. Beyond the facts that he required a somewhat lighter ear and still more massive proportions, combined with greater stature, he evidently approximated more nearly to his distant ancestors than to his immediate ones. The matter of ear here alluded to is probably only a requirement called for by modern and more refined tastes, as it is hardly likely that any very high standard as to quality or looks was ever aimed at or reached by our remote ancestors in any breed of dogs. Strength, stature, and fleetness were the points most carefully cultivated—at any rate, as regards those used in the pursuit and capture of large and fierce game.
It is somewhat remarkable that, whilst we have accounts of almost all the noticeable breeds, including the Irish wolfhound, there is no allusion to any such dog as the deerhound save in writings of a comparatively recent date.
The article or essay on the Irish wolfhound, written by Richardson in 1842, is, it is supposed, the only one on this subject in existence; and whilst it is evident to the reader that the subject has been most ably treated and thoroughly Bifted by him, yet some of his conclusions, if not erroneous, are at least open to question. It is a matter of history that this dog is of very ancient origin, and was well known to and highly prized by the Romans, who frequently used him for their combats in the arena; and that he was retained in a certain degree of purity to within a comparatively recent period, when, owing to the extinction of wolves, and presumably to the indifference and carelessness of owners, this most superb and valuable breed of dog was unaccountably suffered to fall into a very neglected and degenerate state.
From the general tenor of the accounts we hear of this dog's dimensions and appearance, it is to be gathered that he was of considerably greater stature than any known race of dogs existing at present, and apparently more than equal to the destruction of a wolf.
It is an incontestable fact that the domestic dog, when used for the pursuit of ferocious animals, should be invariably larger and apparently more powerful than his quarry, as the fierce nature, roving habits, and food of the wild animal render him usually more than a match for his domesticated enemy, if only of equal size and stature. We know that the Russian wolfhounds, though equal in stature to the wolf, will not attack him single-handed ; and wisely, for they would certainly be worsted in the combat.
The Irish wolfhound being used for both the capture and despatch of the wolf, it would necessarily have been of greyhound conformation, besides being of enormous power. When caught, a heavy dog such as a mastiff would be equal to the destruction of the wolf; but to obtain a dog with greyhound speed and the strength of the mastiff, it would stand to reason that his stature should considerably exceed that of the mastiff—one of our tallest as well as most powerful breeds. The usual height of the mastiff does not exceed 30. inches ; and, arguing as above, we may reasonably conclude that, to obtain the requisite combination of speed and power, a height of at least 33 inches would have been reached. Many writers, however, put his stature down as far exceeding that. Goldsmith states he stood 4 feet; Buffon states one sitting measured 5 feet in height; Bewick, that the Irish wolfhound was about 3 feet in height; Richardson, arguing from the measurements of the skulls of the Irish wolfhound preserved at the present time in the Royal Irish Academy, pronounced it his opinion that they must have stood 40 inches.
It is perfectly certain, from these and many other accounts, allusion to which want of space renders impossible, that the dog was of vast size and strength, and all agree in stating that, whilst his power was that of the mastiff, his form was that of the greyhound. The "Sportsman's Cabinet," a very valuable old book on dogs, published in 1803, which is illustrated with very good engravings after drawings from life by Renaigle, R.A., says—" The dogs of Greece, Denmark, Tartary, and Ireland are the largest and strongest of their species. The Irish greyhound is of very ancient race, and still to be found in some few remote parts of the kingdom, but they are said to be much reduced in size even in their original climate ; they are much larger than the mastiff, and exceedingly ferocious when engaged." A very good and spirited drawing of this dog is given, which almost entirely coincides with the writer's conclusion as to what the Irish wolfhound was and should be, though a rougher coat and somewhat more lengthy frame are desirable. The dogs described in " Ossian" are evidently identical with the Irish wolfhound, being of much greater stature and power than the present deerhound. From these descriptions, and those given elsewhere, we may conclude that, in addition to the dog's being of great stature, strength, and speed, he was also clothed in rough hair. In support of this we find that in the present day all the larger breeds of greyhound are invariably rough and long as to coat.
Many writers have incorrectly confounded the Irish wolfhound with the Great Dane, though the two dogs vary entirely in appearance, if not so much in build. It seems more than probable, however, that the two breeds were frequently crossed, which may account for these statements. The late Marquis of Sligo possessed some of this breed, which he was in the habit (erroneously) of considering Irish wolfhounds.
Richardson was at very great trouble to get every information as to the probable height of this dog, but the conclusions arrived at by him (chiefly based on the lengths of the skulls measured by him) would seem to be decidedly wrong, for the following reasons:—He states "the skull is 11 inches in the bone ;" to that he adds 3 inches for nose, skin, and hair, thus getting 14 inches as the length of the living animal's head. The head of a living deerhound, measured by him, is 10 inches, the dog standing 29 inches ; .he then calculates that the height of the Irish wolfhound would have been 40 inches, taking for his guide the fact that the 29 inches dog's head was 10 inches. This would appear to be correct enough, but the allowance of 3 inches for extras is absurd;
1 1/2 inches are an ample allowance for the extras, and if the head is taken at 12 1/2 inches the height of the dog will be reduced to 36 inches. Moreover, the measurement of 10 inches for the head of a 29 inches deerhound's head is manifestly insufficient, as the writer can testify from ample experience and frequent measurements. A deerhound of that height would have a head at least 11 inches; so, calculating on the same principles, the Irish skulls would have been from dogs that only stood 33 1/2 inches. Richardson says that this skull is superior in size to the others, which would prove that the average must have been under 33 1/2 inches, and we may safely conclude that the height of these dogs varied from 31 inches to 34 inches. In support of this view the writer would point to the German boarhound; this dog has retained his character from a very remote age, and as he is still used for the capture of fierce and large animals, the breed is not likely to have been allowed to degenerate. The height of this breed varies from 28 inches to 33 inches, the latter being probably the limit to which any race of dogs has been known to arrive.
The writer has numerous extracts from various authors, and many engravings from pictures by artists, dating from the middle of the sixteenth century to the commencement of the present century; but want of space will not allow of their being introduced, though of much interest. From these sources it is gathered clearly that the dog was such as has been above stated; and from these varied accounts the following detailed conclusions as to the appearance and dimensions of the breed are arrived at, though perhaps they may not be considered as absolutely conclusive.
General Appearance and Form.—That of a very tall, heavy Scotch deerhound; much more massive and majestic looking; active, and tolerably fast, but somewhat less so than the present breed of deerhound; the neck thick in comparison to his form, very muscular and rather long.
Shape of Head.—Very long, but not too narrow, coming to a comparative point; nose not too small, and head gradually getting broader from the same evenly up to the back of the skull; much broader between the ears than that of present deerhound.
Coat.—Rough and hard all over body, tail, and legs, and of good length; hair on head long, and rather softer than that on body ; that under the jaws to be long and wiry, also that over eyes.
Colour.—Black, grey, brindle, red, and fawn, though white and particoloured dogs were common, and even preferred in olden times.
Shape and Size of Ears.—Small in proportion to size of head, and half erect, resembling those of the best deerhounds; if the dog is of light colour a dark ear is to be preferred.
Table Of Points Of The Irish Wolfhound
When Sir Walter Scott lost his celebrated dog Maida (which, by the way, was by a Pyrenean dog out of a Glengarry deerhound bitch), he was presented with a brace of dogs by Glengarry and Cluny Macpherson, both of gigantic size. He calls them "wolfhounds," and says, "There is no occupation for them, as there is only one wolf near, and that is confined in a menagerie." He was offered a fine Irish greyhound by Miss Edgeworth, who owned some of this breed, but declined, having the others. Eichardson says—" Though I have separated the Irish wolf-dog from the Highland deerhound and the Scottish greyhound, I have only done so partly in conformity with general opinion, that I have yet to correct, and partly because these dogs, though originally identical, are now unquestionably distinct in many particulars."
As the rough Scotch greyhound is to the present deerhound, so is the deerhound to what the Irish wolfhound was it may be of interest to mention here that the last wolf is said to have been killed in 1710, but there is no accurate information as to the date. The height of the European wolf varies from 28 in. to 30 in., and he is, though of comparatively slight form, an animal of very great power and activity.
Richardson, being an enthusiast on the subject, and not content with simply writing, took measures to recover the breed. With much'patience and trouble, he hunted up all the strains he could hear of, and bred dogs of gigantic size to which the strains now in existence can be distinctly traced. A gentleman of position and means in Ireland, deceased some six or eight years, possessed a kennel of these dogs, on the breeding of which he expended both time and fortune freely. They were, though not equal to the original dog, very fine animals. It has been ascertained beyond all question that there are a few specimens of the breed still in Ireland and England that have well-founded pretensions to be considered Irish wolfhounds, though falling far short of the requisite dimensions; and, in concluding this paper, the writer would again earnestly urge that some decided action may be taken by gentlemen possessing both leisure and means to restore to us that most noble of the canine race —the Irish wolfhound.
Capt Graham, Rednock, Dursley.
Since the year 1876 a club has been specially formed for the resuscitation of this breed, under the auspices of Captain Graham, and in the present year (1886) a class was made for their exhibition by the Kennel Club at their summer show—divided, as usual, between the two sexes. For these there were eighteen entries, but most of the male exhibits resembled the deerhound so closely, both in size and appearance, that they might just as well have appeared in that class. The bitches were generally of larger size than the corresponding sex of the deerhound, which is very much smaller than the dog, and this is probably due to the cross with the Great Dane, admittedly used for the purpose of increasing size. Thus Colonel Garnier's " Hecla" and Mr. Townsend's "Lufan of Ivanhoe" are by "Cedric the Saxon," a fine fawn-coloured Dane, both very large bitches; while Mr. Laloe's "M'Mahon," an own brother to them, is very little higher or heavier.
The Irish Wolfhound
With regard to their claim to be really descended from the old Irish wolf-dog, Captain Graham writes me that "the late Sir John Power of Kilfane had his breed in 1842, and that Mr. Mahony had the same strain about that time—that they were descended closely from Hamilton Rowan's celebrated ' Brian,' which he claimed to be the last of the old Irish wolf-dogs, descended, it is believed, from the O'Toole's dogs of 1815 or so. I knew Sir John Power well, and he remembered H. Rowan's dog, a great, rough, dark dog of the massive deerhound character. Of ' Kilfane Oscar' I now have a grandson, and there are one or two more in other parts of the country bred by me. 'Oscar' came to me from Sir Ralph Gal way, who had him from Sir J. Power's son." It will thus be seen that Captain Graham claims to have in his possession lineal descendants of the genuine breed, but not pure, since they are of necessity crossed with the deerhound, or Great Dane, he not having possessed an example of each sex. If he could produce the breed in its purity, it would be extremely interesting from a natural history point of view; but as he cannot, it must be regarded as the nearest approach which he is able to make. Both the winners at the Kennel Club Show were bred by Captain Graham, and I have obtained an excellent portrait of the dog, from which my readers will be able to form their own opinions.
Points Of The Irish Wolfhound.
The following are the points of this breed as settled by the special club:—
1. General Appearance.—The Irish wolfhound should not be quite so heavy or massive as the Great Dane, but more so than the deerhound, which in general type he should otherwise resemble. Of great size and commanding appearance, very muscular, strongly though gracefully built, movements easy and active; head and neck carried high; the tail carried with an upward sweep, with a slight curve towards the extremity. The minimum height and weight of dog should be 31 inches and 120 lbs.; of bitches, 28 inches and 90 lbs. Anything below this should be debarred from competition. Great size, including height at shoulder and proportionate length of body, is the desideratum to be aimed at; and it is desired to firmly establish a race that shall average from 32 to 34 inches in dog, showing the requisite power, activity, courage, and symmetry.
2. Head.—Long, the frontal bones very slightly raised, and very little indentation between the eyes. Skull not too broad. Muzzle long and moderately pointed. Ears small, and greyhound-like in carriage.
3. Neck.—Rather long, very strong and muscular, well arched, with a dewlap or loose skin about the throat.
4. Chest very deep. Breast wide.
5. Back.—Rather long than short. Some arched.
6. Tail.—Long and slightly curved, of moderate thickness, and well covered with hair.'
7. Belly well drawn up.
8. Forequarters.—Shoulders muscular, giving breadth of chest, set sloping. Elbows well under, neither turned inwards nor outwards. Leg forearm muscular, and the whole leg strong and quite straight.
9. Hindquarters.—Muscular thighs, and second thigh long and strong as in the greyhound, and hocks well let down and turning neither in nor out.
10. Feet.—Moderately large and round, neither turned in nor out. Toes well arched and closed. Nails very strong and curved.
11. Hair.—Eough and hard on body, legs, and head, especially wiry and long over eyes and under jaw.
12. Colour and Markings.—The recognised colours are grey, brindle, red, black, pure white, fawn, or any colour that approaches the deerhound.
13. Faults.—Too light or heavy a head, too highly arched frontal bone; large ears, and hanging flat to the face; short neck; full dewlap; too narrow or too broad a chest; sunken or hollow or quite straight back; bent forelegs, overbent fetlocks, twisted feet, spreading toes; too curly a tail, weak hindquarters, and general want of muscle; too short in body.